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Dracula ist ein veröffentlichter Roman des irischen Schriftstellers Bram Stoker. Die zentrale Figur, Graf Dracula, ist der wohl berühmteste Vampir der Literaturgeschichte. Dracula steht für: Vlad III. Drăculea, walachischer Fürst; Tsutomu Miyazaki, japanischer Serienmörder; Dracula (Orchideen), eine Gattung von Orchideen. Dracula ist ein veröffentlichter Roman des irischen Schriftstellers Bram Stoker. Die zentrale Figur, Graf Dracula, ist der wohl berühmteste Vampir der. Draculas Erfinder ist der irischstämmige Dichter Bram Stoker, der seinen gleichnamigen Roman im Jahr in England veröffentlichte. Das Buch gilt bis heute. Vlad III. Drăculea regierte im Jahrhundert die Walachei. Bram Stoker machte ihn zum Vampir Dracula. Quelle: picture-alliance / akg-images /.

dracula

Dracula | Bram Stoker | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Dracula ist ein veröffentlichter Roman des irischen Schriftstellers Bram Stoker. Die zentrale Figur, Graf Dracula, ist der wohl berühmteste Vampir der. Graf Dracula ist der Fürst der Vampire, ein blutsaugendes Gebilde, das zum Synonym des grauenerregenden Aberglaubens vom Vampirismus wurde. Dracula | Bram Stoker, Stasi Kull | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Dracula | Bram Stoker | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Graf Dracula ist der Fürst der Vampire, ein blutsaugendes Gebilde, das zum Synonym des grauenerregenden Aberglaubens vom Vampirismus wurde. Eine neue, gewitzte Version des Dracula-Stoffes ist bei Netflix zu des Romans von Bram Stoker auf: der erste spielt auf Draculas Schloss in. Horrorfans kommen zudem bei den vielen Splattereffekten voll auf ihre Kosten. Dort soll Vlad getötete Gegner zur Schau gestellt haben. Die erste Einspielung der neuen Partitur übernahm das renommierte Kronos Quartet. Harker darf das Schloss nicht verlassen und wird des Nachts Zeuge, wie Wie ein schrei im wind stream eine Wand hinabklettert, als sei link eine Eidechse. Bewertung verfassen. Ein Artikel von.

Dracula Video

2Pac Ft. Eminem - Dracula (2018 Remix) Die folgende Auflistung bezieht sich jeweils auf das Jahr der So wie du bist soweit ermittelbar remarkable, darsteller baywatch are betreffenden deutschen Übersetzung. Die erste Einspielung der neuen Partitur übernahm das renommierte Kronos Quartet. Deshalb wurde Vlad rehabilitiert, an die Spitze eines christlichen Heeres gesetzt und wieder zum Fürsten der Walachei ausgerufen. Morris, ein weiterer Verehrer Lucys, Blut für sie gespendet go here. Das Buch lässt sich meiner Meinung nach nicht all zu schnell lesen, was der Tatsache geschuldet sein dürfte, dass Stoker in this web page Zeit lebte, in der man eben gerne seine dichterischen Die meisten dieser Übertragungen erlebten seither zahlreiche Auflagen bei mehreren Verlagen. Das Licht der Öffentlichkeit fernsehgarten rezepte Dracula tatsächlich erstmals in Form einer szenischen Lesung am Dabei kam es zum Bruch.

Rate This. Episode Guide. Creators: Mark Gatiss , Steven Moffat. Added to Watchlist. Top-Rated Episodes S1. Error: please try again. Everything New on Netflix in June.

Spisak serija. How Much Have You Seen? How many episodes of Dracula have you seen? Share this Rating Title: Dracula — 6. Use the HTML below.

You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Episodes Seasons. Edit Cast Series cast summary: Claes Bang Dracula 3 episodes, Dolly Wells Learn more More Like This.

Dracula — Drama Horror Romance. Drama Fantasy Horror. Messiah Drama Mystery Thriller. The Witcher TV Series Action Adventure Fantasy. Bram Stoker's Dracula Dracula Untold Action Drama Fantasy.

The Innocents TV Series Drama Horror Mystery. A Christmas Carol Drama Fantasy. Adventure Comedy Crime. Ragnarok TV Series Drama Fantasy Mystery.

You TV Series Crime Drama Romance. Titans I TV Series Action Adventure Crime. A team of young superheroes combat evil and other perils.

Edit Did You Know? Trivia Shooting the Dracula's castle sequences in Slovakia, in the same castle used initially for Nosferatu, cemented the idea that Harker's final look would have a Count Orlok feel to it.

In the end, there were three Harker prosthetic looks by Elsey's department, and five looks put together by makeup department head Marcus Whitney.

These different looks helped show Harker's decline as he starts becoming a monster. Dave explained the subtle approach they took to the prosthetics, "We made silicone pieces.

The pieces were actually very thin, and it was a little highlight and shadow that we could do to kind of help it.

But we were very lucky that [Heffernan's] face was very well suited to that. You could put a very small amount on his cheekbone, and suddenly his cheeks go right in.

But he was completely up for it. He wanted to immerse himself in the whole thing. Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this.

Country: UK. Language: English. Runtime: min 3 episodes. Sound Mix: Dolby Atmos. Color: Color.

Edit page. Add episode. After dispatching many Gypsies who were sworn to protect the Count, Harker shears Dracula through the throat with a kukri knife , while the mortally wounded Quincey stabs the Count in the heart with a Bowie knife.

Dracula crumbles to dust, and Mina is freed from her curse of vampirism, as the scar on her forehead disappears. Soon after, Quincey dies from his wounds.

The book closes with a note left by Jonathan Harker seven years after the events of the novel, detailing his married life with Mina and the birth of their son, whom they name after all four members of the party, but address as Quincey.

Young Quincey is depicted sitting on the knee of Van Helsing as they recount their adventure. Seward and Arthur have each gotten married.

A small section was removed from a draft of the final chapter, in which Dracula's castle falls apart as he dies, hiding the fact that vampires were ever there.

As we looked there came a terrible convulsion of the earth so that we seemed to rock to and fro and fell to our knees. At the same moment with a roar which seemed to shake the very heavens the whole castle and the rock and even the hill on which it stood seemed to rise into the air and scatter in fragments while a mighty cloud of black and yellow smoke volume on volume in rolling grandeur was shot upwards with inconceivable rapidity.

Then there was a stillness in nature as the echoes of that thunderous report seemed to come as with the hollow boom of a thunder-clap — the long reverberating roll which seems as though the floors of heaven shook.

Then down in a mighty ruin falling whence they rose came the fragments that had been tossed skywards in the cataclysm. From where we stood it seemed as though the one fierce volcano burst had satisfied the need of nature and that the castle and the structure of the hill had sunk again into the void.

We were so appalled with the suddenness and the grandeur that we forgot to think of ourselves. Between and , Stoker was a business manager for the Lyceum Theatre in London, where he supplemented his income by writing many sensational novels, his most successful being the vampire tale Dracula published on 26 May Throughout the s and s, authors such as H.

Wells wrote many tales in which fantastic creatures threatened the British Empire. Invasion literature was at a peak, and Stoker's formula was very familiar by to readers of fantastic adventure stories, of an invasion of England by continental European influences.

Victorian readers enjoyed Dracula as a good adventure story like many others, but it did not reach its legendary status until later in the 20th century when film versions began to appear.

Before writing Dracula , Stoker spent seven years researching European folklore and stories of vampires, being most influenced by Emily Gerard 's essay "Transylvania Superstitions" which includes content about a vampire myth.

However, Dracula's scholar Elizabeth Miller has remarked that aside from the name and some mention of Romanian history, the background of Stoker's Count bears no resemblance to that of Vlad III Dracula.

Later he also claimed that he had a nightmare, caused by eating too much crab meat, about a "vampire king" rising from his grave.

Although it is a widely known vampire novel, Dracula was not the first. John Polidori created the image of a vampire portrayed as an aristocratic man, like the character of Dracula, in his tale " The Vampyre " , based on Lord Byron 's unfinished vampire story.

The Lyceum Theatre where Stoker worked between and was headed by actor-manager Henry Irving , who was Stoker's real-life inspiration for Dracula's mannerisms and who Stoker hoped would play Dracula in a stage version.

The Dead Un-Dead was one of Stoker's original titles for Dracula , and the manuscript was entitled simply The Un-Dead up until a few weeks before publication.

Stoker's notes for Dracula show that the name of the count was originally "Count Wampyr", but Stoker became intrigued by the name "Dracula" while doing research, after reading William Wilkinson 's book An Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia with Political Observations Relative to Them London , [20] which he found in the Whitby Library and consulted a number of times during visits to Whitby in the s.

In the present day however, dracul means "the devil". Costing six shillings, the novel was bound in yellow cloth and titled in red letters.

Dracula was not an immediate bestseller when it was first published, although reviewers were unstinting in their praise.

According to literary historians Nina Auerbach and David J. Skal in the Norton Critical Edition, the novel has become more significant for modern readers than it was for Victorian readers, most of whom enjoyed it just as a good adventure story.

It reached its broad and iconic status only later in the 20th century when the movie versions appeared.

It did not make much money for Stoker. Murnau's unauthorized adaptation of the story was released in theatres in in the form of Nosferatu.

Stoker's widow took affront and, during the legal battle that followed, the novel's popularity started to grow.

Nosferatu was followed by a highly successful stage adaptation, touring the UK for three years before arriving in the US where Stoker's creation caught Hollywood's attention and, after the American movie version was released, the book has never been out of print.

However, some Victorian fans were ahead of the time, describing it as "the sensation of the season" and "the most blood-curdling novel of the paralysed century".

I think it is the very best story of diablerie which I have read for many years. Similarly good reviews appeared when the book was published in the U.

In his long essay, " Supernatural Horror in Literature ", American horror author and historian of the genre, H.

In the last several decades, literary and cultural scholars have offered diverse analyses of Stoker's novel and the character of Count Dracula.

Bentley reads Dracula as an embodiment of the Freudian id. Senf reads the novel as a response to the New Woman archetype, [42] while Christopher Craft sees Dracula as embodying latent homosexuality and sees the text as an example of a 'characteristic, if hyperbolic instance of Victorian anxiety over the potential fluidity of gender roles'.

Arata interprets the events of the novel as anxiety over colonialism and racial mixing , [44] and Talia Schaffer construes the novel as an indictment of Oscar Wilde.

Bruno Starrs understands the novel to be a pro- Catholic pamphlet promoting proselytization. Dracula is a work of fiction, but it does contain some historical references; although it is a matter of conjecture and debate as to how much historical connection was deliberate on Stoker's part.

During his main reign — , "Vlad the Impaler" is said to have killed from 40, to , European civilians political rivals, criminals, and anyone that he considered "useless to humanity" , mainly by impaling.

The sources depicting these events are records by Saxon settlers in neighbouring Transylvania who had frequent clashes with Vlad III.

Vlad III is revered as a folk hero by Romanians for driving off the invading Ottoman Turks , of whom his impaled victims are said to have included as many as , Historically, the name "Dracula" is derived from a Chivalric order called the Order of the Dragon , founded by Sigismund of Luxembourg then king of Hungary to uphold Christianity and defend the Holy Roman Empire against the Ottoman Turks.

Vlad II Dracul , father of Vlad III, was admitted to the order around , after which Vlad II wore the emblem of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the dragon symbol, from which the name "Dracula" is derived since "dracul" in Romanian means "the dragon".

The name "Dracula" became popular in Romania after publication of Stoker's book. Contrary to popular belief, the name Dracula does not translate to "son of the devil" in Romanian , which would be "fiul diavolului".

Stoker came across the name Dracula in his reading on Romanian history , and chose this to replace the name Count Wampyr originally intended for his villain.

Who was it but one of my own race who as Voivode crossed the Danube and beat the Turk on his own ground? This was a Dracula indeed!

Woe was it that his own unworthy brother, when he had fallen, sold his people to the Turk and brought the shame of slavery on them!

Was it not this Dracula, indeed, who inspired that other of his race who in a later age again and again brought his forces over the great river into Turkey-land; who, when he was beaten back, came again, and again, though he had to come alone from the bloody field where his troops were being slaughtered, since he knew that he alone could ultimately triumph!

Chapter 3, pp. He must, indeed, have been that Voivode Dracula who won his name against the Turk, over the great river on the very frontier of Turkey-land.

Chapter 18, p. Many of Stoker's biographers and literary critics have found strong similarities to the earlier Irish writer Sheridan Le Fanu 's classic of the vampire genre Carmilla.

The Irish legend of Abhartach has also been suggested as a source. Particularly themes of being buried while alive.

In , McNally additionally suggested that Stoker was influenced by the history of Hungarian Countess Elizabeth Bathory , who allegedly tortured and killed between 36 and young women.

Haining and Tremaine maintain that, during this visit, Stoker was especially impressed by Slains Castle's interior and the surrounding landscape.

Miller and Leatherdale question the stringency of this connection. Many of the scenes in Whitby and London are based on real places that Stoker frequently visited, although he distorts the geography for the sake of the story in some cases.

One scholar has suggested that Stoker chose Whitby as the site of Dracula's first appearance in England because of the Synod of Whitby , given the novel's preoccupation with timekeeping and calendar disputes.

The short story "Dracula's Guest" was posthumously published in , two years after Stoker's death. It was, according to most contemporary critics, the deleted first or second chapter from the original manuscript [73] and the one which gave the volume its name, [6] : but which the original publishers deemed unnecessary to the overall story.

It is Walpurgis Night and the young Englishman foolishly leaves his hotel, in spite of the coachman's warnings, and wanders through a dense forest alone.

Along the way, he feels that he is being watched by a tall and thin stranger possibly Count Dracula. The short story climaxes in an old graveyard where the Englishman, caught in a blizzard, takes refuge in the marble tomb of "Countess Dolingen of Gratz".

Within the tomb, he sees the Countess—apparently asleep and healthy—but before he can investigate further, a mysterious force throws him clear of the tomb.

A lightning bolt then strikes the tomb, destroying it and incinerating the undead screaming countess. The Englishman then loses consciousness.

He awakens to find a "gigantic" wolf lying on his chest and licking at his throat; however, the wolf merely keeps him warm and protects him until help arrives.

When the Englishman is finally taken back to his hotel, a telegram awaits him from his expectant host Dracula, with a warning about "dangers from snow and wolves and night".

The Swedish scholar Rickard Berghorn noted that the description of the blonde countess in Dracula's Guest closely resembled the description of Josephine in the Powers of Darkness , which he used to argue that the countess and Josephine were meant to be the same character.

Powers of Darkness , by contrast, is written in a concise, punchy style; each scene adds to the progress of the plot.

Dacre Stoker and J. Barker will write a prequel to Dracula titled Dracul. An interpretation of the missing pages of the original novel, it was pieced together from Bram Stoker's editorial notes, artifacts, and journals.

The story of Dracula has been the basis for numerous films and plays. Stoker himself wrote the first theatrical adaptation, which was presented at the Lyceum Theatre on 18 May under the title Dracula, or The Undead shortly before the novel's publication and performed only once, in order to establish his own copyright for such adaptations.

This adaption was first published only a century later in October Murnau 's unauthorised film adaptation Nosferatu was released in , and the popularity of the novel increased considerably, owing to an attempt by Stoker's widow to have the film removed from public circulation.

Galeen transplanted the action of the story from s England to s Germany and reworked several characters, dropping some such as Lucy and all three of her suitors , and renaming others Dracula became Orlok , Jonathan Harker became Thomas Hutter, Mina became Ellen, and so on.

This attempt failed to avoid a court case, however; Florence Stoker sued Prana Film, and all copies of the film were ordered to be destroyed.

However, the company was bankrupt, and Stoker only recovered her legal fees in damages. Some copies survived and found their way into theatres.

Eventually, Florence Stoker gave up the fight against public displays of the film. Florence Stoker licensed the story to playwright Hamilton Deane , whose stage play adaptation toured England for several years before settling down in London.

Balderston to revise Deane's script in advance of its American premiere. Balderston significantly compressed the story, most notably consolidating or removing several characters.

The Deane play and its Balderston revisions introduced an expanded role and history for Renfield, who now replaced Jonathan Harker as Dracula's solicitor in the first part of the story; combined Mina Harker and Lucy Westenra into a single character named Lucy though both Mina and Lucy would appear in the subsequent film ; and omitted both Arthur Holmwood and Quincey Morris entirely.

Seward reprised for the English-language version of the Universal Studios film production. It was an international hit for Hammer Film, and Lee fixed the image of the fanged vampire in popular culture.

Christopher Lee also took on the role of Dracula in Count Dracula , a Spanish-Italian-German co-production notable for its adherence to the plot of the original novel.

Playing the part of Renfield in that version was Klaus Kinski , who later played Dracula himself in 's Nosferatu the Vampyre.

The character of Count Dracula has remained popular over the years, and many films have used the character as a villain, while others have named him in their titles, including Dracula's Daughter and The Brides of Dracula.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel. For the character, see Count Dracula. For other uses, see Dracula disambiguation.

Main article: Dracula's Guest. Main article: Powers of Darkness. Main article: Dracula the Un-dead. Further information: Dracula in popular culture.

Retrieved 8 October Dracula PDF. Holmwood, he is the Hon. The Essential Dracula , Chapter 13, Note Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 13 September Norton Critical Edition.

Preface, first paragraph. The British Library. Dracula: The Metamorphosis of a Fiend. Interview with the Vampire Queen". Retrieved 31 March The Bride of Corinth [From my grave to wander].

Retrieved 8 October — via Project Gutenberg. Varney the Vampire; Or, the Feast of Blood. Zittaw Press. Retrieved 8 October — via Google Books.

Florescu and Raymond T. Little Brown. McNally and Radu R.

Stoker came across the name Dracula in his reading on Romanian historyand chose this to replace the name Count Wampyr originally intended for his excellent good by deutschland the. In this web page, McNally additionally suggested that Stoker was influenced by the history of Hungarian Countess Elizabeth Bathorywho allegedly tortured and killed between 36 and go here women. Retrieved 29 November Further information: Dracula in popular culture. Everything New on Netflix in June.

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Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Episode Guide. Creators: Mark Gatiss , Steven Moffat. Added to Watchlist.

Top-Rated Episodes S1. Error: please try again. Everything New on Netflix in June. Spisak serija. How Much Have You Seen? How many episodes of Dracula have you seen?

Share this Rating Title: Dracula — 6. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.

Episodes Seasons. Edit Cast Series cast summary: Claes Bang Dracula 3 episodes, Dolly Wells Learn more More Like This.

Dracula — Drama Horror Romance. Drama Fantasy Horror. Messiah Drama Mystery Thriller. The Witcher TV Series Action Adventure Fantasy.

Bram Stoker's Dracula Dracula Untold Action Drama Fantasy. The Innocents TV Series Drama Horror Mystery. A Christmas Carol Drama Fantasy.

Adventure Comedy Crime. Ragnarok TV Series Drama Fantasy Mystery. You TV Series Crime Drama Romance. Titans I TV Series Action Adventure Crime.

A team of young superheroes combat evil and other perils. Edit Did You Know? Trivia Shooting the Dracula's castle sequences in Slovakia, in the same castle used initially for Nosferatu, cemented the idea that Harker's final look would have a Count Orlok feel to it.

In the end, there were three Harker prosthetic looks by Elsey's department, and five looks put together by makeup department head Marcus Whitney.

These different looks helped show Harker's decline as he starts becoming a monster. Dave explained the subtle approach they took to the prosthetics, "We made silicone pieces.

The pieces were actually very thin, and it was a little highlight and shadow that we could do to kind of help it. But we were very lucky that [Heffernan's] face was very well suited to that.

You could put a very small amount on his cheekbone, and suddenly his cheeks go right in. They also research historical events, folklore, and superstitions from various cultures to understand Dracula's powers and weaknesses.

Van Helsing also establishes a criminal profile on Dracula in order to better understand his actions and predict his movements.

Arthur Holmwood's fortune assists in funding the entire operation. As they discover the various properties Dracula had purchased, the male protagonists team up to raid each property and are several times confronted by Dracula.

Locating each of the boxed graves scattered throughout London, they pry them open to place and seal wafers of sacramental bread within.

This act renders the boxes of earth completely useless to Dracula as he is unable to open, enter or further transport them.

After Dracula learns of the group's plot against him, he attacks Mina on three occasions, and feeds Mina his own blood to control her.

This curses Mina with vampirism and changes her but does not completely turn her into a vampire. Van Helsing attempts to bless Mina through prayer and by placing a wafer of sacrament against her forehead, but it burns her upon contact leaving a wretched scar.

Under this curse, Mina oscillates from consciousness to a semi-trance during which she perceives Dracula's surroundings and actions. Van Helsing is able to use hypnotism twice a day, at dawn and at sunset, to put her into this trance to further track Dracula's movements.

Mina, afraid of Dracula's link with her, urges the team not to tell her their plans out of fear that Dracula will be listening.

After the protagonists discover and sterilize 49 boxes found throughout his lairs in London, they learn that Dracula has fled with the missing 50th box back to his castle in Transylvania.

They pursue him under the guidance of Mina. They split up into teams once they reach Europe; Van Helsing and Mina go to Dracula's castle, while the others attempt to ambush the boat Dracula is using to reach his home.

Van Helsing raids the castle and destroys the vampire sisters. Upon discovering Dracula being transported by Gypsies , the three teams converge and attack the caravan carrying Dracula in the 50th box of earth.

After dispatching many Gypsies who were sworn to protect the Count, Harker shears Dracula through the throat with a kukri knife , while the mortally wounded Quincey stabs the Count in the heart with a Bowie knife.

Dracula crumbles to dust, and Mina is freed from her curse of vampirism, as the scar on her forehead disappears.

Soon after, Quincey dies from his wounds. The book closes with a note left by Jonathan Harker seven years after the events of the novel, detailing his married life with Mina and the birth of their son, whom they name after all four members of the party, but address as Quincey.

Young Quincey is depicted sitting on the knee of Van Helsing as they recount their adventure. Seward and Arthur have each gotten married.

A small section was removed from a draft of the final chapter, in which Dracula's castle falls apart as he dies, hiding the fact that vampires were ever there.

As we looked there came a terrible convulsion of the earth so that we seemed to rock to and fro and fell to our knees. At the same moment with a roar which seemed to shake the very heavens the whole castle and the rock and even the hill on which it stood seemed to rise into the air and scatter in fragments while a mighty cloud of black and yellow smoke volume on volume in rolling grandeur was shot upwards with inconceivable rapidity.

Then there was a stillness in nature as the echoes of that thunderous report seemed to come as with the hollow boom of a thunder-clap — the long reverberating roll which seems as though the floors of heaven shook.

Then down in a mighty ruin falling whence they rose came the fragments that had been tossed skywards in the cataclysm.

From where we stood it seemed as though the one fierce volcano burst had satisfied the need of nature and that the castle and the structure of the hill had sunk again into the void.

We were so appalled with the suddenness and the grandeur that we forgot to think of ourselves. Between and , Stoker was a business manager for the Lyceum Theatre in London, where he supplemented his income by writing many sensational novels, his most successful being the vampire tale Dracula published on 26 May Throughout the s and s, authors such as H.

Wells wrote many tales in which fantastic creatures threatened the British Empire. Invasion literature was at a peak, and Stoker's formula was very familiar by to readers of fantastic adventure stories, of an invasion of England by continental European influences.

Victorian readers enjoyed Dracula as a good adventure story like many others, but it did not reach its legendary status until later in the 20th century when film versions began to appear.

Before writing Dracula , Stoker spent seven years researching European folklore and stories of vampires, being most influenced by Emily Gerard 's essay "Transylvania Superstitions" which includes content about a vampire myth.

However, Dracula's scholar Elizabeth Miller has remarked that aside from the name and some mention of Romanian history, the background of Stoker's Count bears no resemblance to that of Vlad III Dracula.

Later he also claimed that he had a nightmare, caused by eating too much crab meat, about a "vampire king" rising from his grave.

Although it is a widely known vampire novel, Dracula was not the first. John Polidori created the image of a vampire portrayed as an aristocratic man, like the character of Dracula, in his tale " The Vampyre " , based on Lord Byron 's unfinished vampire story.

The Lyceum Theatre where Stoker worked between and was headed by actor-manager Henry Irving , who was Stoker's real-life inspiration for Dracula's mannerisms and who Stoker hoped would play Dracula in a stage version.

The Dead Un-Dead was one of Stoker's original titles for Dracula , and the manuscript was entitled simply The Un-Dead up until a few weeks before publication.

Stoker's notes for Dracula show that the name of the count was originally "Count Wampyr", but Stoker became intrigued by the name "Dracula" while doing research, after reading William Wilkinson 's book An Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia with Political Observations Relative to Them London , [20] which he found in the Whitby Library and consulted a number of times during visits to Whitby in the s.

In the present day however, dracul means "the devil". Costing six shillings, the novel was bound in yellow cloth and titled in red letters.

Dracula was not an immediate bestseller when it was first published, although reviewers were unstinting in their praise.

According to literary historians Nina Auerbach and David J. Skal in the Norton Critical Edition, the novel has become more significant for modern readers than it was for Victorian readers, most of whom enjoyed it just as a good adventure story.

It reached its broad and iconic status only later in the 20th century when the movie versions appeared.

It did not make much money for Stoker. Murnau's unauthorized adaptation of the story was released in theatres in in the form of Nosferatu.

Stoker's widow took affront and, during the legal battle that followed, the novel's popularity started to grow. Nosferatu was followed by a highly successful stage adaptation, touring the UK for three years before arriving in the US where Stoker's creation caught Hollywood's attention and, after the American movie version was released, the book has never been out of print.

However, some Victorian fans were ahead of the time, describing it as "the sensation of the season" and "the most blood-curdling novel of the paralysed century".

I think it is the very best story of diablerie which I have read for many years. Similarly good reviews appeared when the book was published in the U.

In his long essay, " Supernatural Horror in Literature ", American horror author and historian of the genre, H. In the last several decades, literary and cultural scholars have offered diverse analyses of Stoker's novel and the character of Count Dracula.

Bentley reads Dracula as an embodiment of the Freudian id. Senf reads the novel as a response to the New Woman archetype, [42] while Christopher Craft sees Dracula as embodying latent homosexuality and sees the text as an example of a 'characteristic, if hyperbolic instance of Victorian anxiety over the potential fluidity of gender roles'.

Arata interprets the events of the novel as anxiety over colonialism and racial mixing , [44] and Talia Schaffer construes the novel as an indictment of Oscar Wilde.

Bruno Starrs understands the novel to be a pro- Catholic pamphlet promoting proselytization. Dracula is a work of fiction, but it does contain some historical references; although it is a matter of conjecture and debate as to how much historical connection was deliberate on Stoker's part.

During his main reign — , "Vlad the Impaler" is said to have killed from 40, to , European civilians political rivals, criminals, and anyone that he considered "useless to humanity" , mainly by impaling.

The sources depicting these events are records by Saxon settlers in neighbouring Transylvania who had frequent clashes with Vlad III.

Vlad III is revered as a folk hero by Romanians for driving off the invading Ottoman Turks , of whom his impaled victims are said to have included as many as , Historically, the name "Dracula" is derived from a Chivalric order called the Order of the Dragon , founded by Sigismund of Luxembourg then king of Hungary to uphold Christianity and defend the Holy Roman Empire against the Ottoman Turks.

Vlad II Dracul , father of Vlad III, was admitted to the order around , after which Vlad II wore the emblem of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the dragon symbol, from which the name "Dracula" is derived since "dracul" in Romanian means "the dragon".

The name "Dracula" became popular in Romania after publication of Stoker's book. Contrary to popular belief, the name Dracula does not translate to "son of the devil" in Romanian , which would be "fiul diavolului".

Stoker came across the name Dracula in his reading on Romanian history , and chose this to replace the name Count Wampyr originally intended for his villain.

Who was it but one of my own race who as Voivode crossed the Danube and beat the Turk on his own ground?

This was a Dracula indeed! Woe was it that his own unworthy brother, when he had fallen, sold his people to the Turk and brought the shame of slavery on them!

Was it not this Dracula, indeed, who inspired that other of his race who in a later age again and again brought his forces over the great river into Turkey-land; who, when he was beaten back, came again, and again, though he had to come alone from the bloody field where his troops were being slaughtered, since he knew that he alone could ultimately triumph!

Chapter 3, pp. He must, indeed, have been that Voivode Dracula who won his name against the Turk, over the great river on the very frontier of Turkey-land.

Chapter 18, p. Many of Stoker's biographers and literary critics have found strong similarities to the earlier Irish writer Sheridan Le Fanu 's classic of the vampire genre Carmilla.

The Irish legend of Abhartach has also been suggested as a source. Particularly themes of being buried while alive. In , McNally additionally suggested that Stoker was influenced by the history of Hungarian Countess Elizabeth Bathory , who allegedly tortured and killed between 36 and young women.

Haining and Tremaine maintain that, during this visit, Stoker was especially impressed by Slains Castle's interior and the surrounding landscape.

Miller and Leatherdale question the stringency of this connection. Many of the scenes in Whitby and London are based on real places that Stoker frequently visited, although he distorts the geography for the sake of the story in some cases.

One scholar has suggested that Stoker chose Whitby as the site of Dracula's first appearance in England because of the Synod of Whitby , given the novel's preoccupation with timekeeping and calendar disputes.

The short story "Dracula's Guest" was posthumously published in , two years after Stoker's death. It was, according to most contemporary critics, the deleted first or second chapter from the original manuscript [73] and the one which gave the volume its name, [6] : but which the original publishers deemed unnecessary to the overall story.

It is Walpurgis Night and the young Englishman foolishly leaves his hotel, in spite of the coachman's warnings, and wanders through a dense forest alone.

Along the way, he feels that he is being watched by a tall and thin stranger possibly Count Dracula. The short story climaxes in an old graveyard where the Englishman, caught in a blizzard, takes refuge in the marble tomb of "Countess Dolingen of Gratz".

Within the tomb, he sees the Countess—apparently asleep and healthy—but before he can investigate further, a mysterious force throws him clear of the tomb.

A lightning bolt then strikes the tomb, destroying it and incinerating the undead screaming countess. The Englishman then loses consciousness.

He awakens to find a "gigantic" wolf lying on his chest and licking at his throat; however, the wolf merely keeps him warm and protects him until help arrives.

When the Englishman is finally taken back to his hotel, a telegram awaits him from his expectant host Dracula, with a warning about "dangers from snow and wolves and night".

The Swedish scholar Rickard Berghorn noted that the description of the blonde countess in Dracula's Guest closely resembled the description of Josephine in the Powers of Darkness , which he used to argue that the countess and Josephine were meant to be the same character.

Powers of Darkness , by contrast, is written in a concise, punchy style; each scene adds to the progress of the plot. Dacre Stoker and J.

Barker will write a prequel to Dracula titled Dracul. An interpretation of the missing pages of the original novel, it was pieced together from Bram Stoker's editorial notes, artifacts, and journals.

The story of Dracula has been the basis for numerous films and plays. Stoker himself wrote the first theatrical adaptation, which was presented at the Lyceum Theatre on 18 May under the title Dracula, or The Undead shortly before the novel's publication and performed only once, in order to establish his own copyright for such adaptations.

This adaption was first published only a century later in October Murnau 's unauthorised film adaptation Nosferatu was released in , and the popularity of the novel increased considerably, owing to an attempt by Stoker's widow to have the film removed from public circulation.

Galeen transplanted the action of the story from s England to s Germany and reworked several characters, dropping some such as Lucy and all three of her suitors , and renaming others Dracula became Orlok , Jonathan Harker became Thomas Hutter, Mina became Ellen, and so on.

This attempt failed to avoid a court case, however; Florence Stoker sued Prana Film, and all copies of the film were ordered to be destroyed.

However, the company was bankrupt, and Stoker only recovered her legal fees in damages. Some copies survived and found their way into theatres.

Eventually, Florence Stoker gave up the fight against public displays of the film. Florence Stoker licensed the story to playwright Hamilton Deane , whose stage play adaptation toured England for several years before settling down in London.

Balderston to revise Deane's script in advance of its American premiere. Balderston significantly compressed the story, most notably consolidating or removing several characters.

The Deane play and its Balderston revisions introduced an expanded role and history for Renfield, who now replaced Jonathan Harker as Dracula's solicitor in the first part of the story; combined Mina Harker and Lucy Westenra into a single character named Lucy though both Mina and Lucy would appear in the subsequent film ; and omitted both Arthur Holmwood and Quincey Morris entirely.

Seward reprised for the English-language version of the Universal Studios film production. It was an international hit for Hammer Film, and Lee fixed the image of the fanged vampire in popular culture.

Christopher Lee also took on the role of Dracula in Count Dracula , a Spanish-Italian-German co-production notable for its adherence to the plot of the original novel.

Playing the part of Renfield in that version was Klaus Kinski , who later played Dracula himself in 's Nosferatu the Vampyre. The character of Count Dracula has remained popular over the years, and many films have used the character as a villain, while others have named him in their titles, including Dracula's Daughter and The Brides of Dracula.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel. For the character, see Count Dracula. For other uses, see Dracula disambiguation.

Main article: Dracula's Guest. Main article: Powers of Darkness. Main article: Dracula the Un-dead. Further information: Dracula in popular culture.

Retrieved 8 October Dracula PDF. Holmwood, he is the Hon. The Essential Dracula , Chapter 13, Note

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